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PART ONE QUESTIONS/ANSWERS

Q:How likely is this to be a heart problem? Asthma? Panic attack? Or...?
A: It is not as likely to be a heart problem as it is to be an asthma attack or most likely a panic attack.
Q:Why do you say this ? What are the symptoms that are consistent with your preliminary diagnosis? Is there anything unusual ?
A: The reason our preliminary diagnosis was a panic attack on Denise's behalf is because all signs and symptoms indicate to this. We noted after reading, that Denise had the following symptoms :
-a feeling of an asthma attack
-lightheaded
-no breath
-heartbeat racing
-feeling of anxiety
There are nothing unusual about her symptoms in relation to a regular panic attack. Regular symptoms can be found and read on the following site :
http://www.anxietypanic.com/signs.html
Of the symptoms of a Panic Attack listed on that website, Denise went through 5 of them,leading us to believe as an end result, this was in fact a Panic attack.

PART TWO QUESTIONS/ANSWERS
Draw a sketch of the heart and show where coronary blood vessels lie
heart_arteries.jpg
List in order the blood vessels that a drop of blood would follow as it makes a complete journey around the body starting as it enters the right atrium until it returns to the right atrium
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The blood drop enters through the right atrium dropping into the right ventricle making it's way up and through the lungs heading down and into the left atrium, continues to move down and then up through the left ventricle making it's way back to return to the right atrium.
Q: What are the characteristics of Denise's lifestyle that might lead to a heart problem ?
A: The characteristics of Denise's lifestyle that could lead her to a heart problem is that she is living with a husband who smokes, and she is constantly inhaling second hand smoke which is internally damaging her lungs and slowly lowering oxygen flow to her heart. Also, the foods she is consuming are high in cholesterol which is causing plaque in her ateries .. not good for her heart, her cholesterol level is at 245 mg/dl when it should never be above a 200 mg/dl. If Denise does not lower her cholesterol in eating habits, and quit inhaling second hand smoke she is at major risk for a serious heart problem .
Q: Has Denise suffered a heart attack ?
A:No, Denise has not yet suffered a heart attack but she has suffered a warning. The way she is currently living her life is putting her at risk for a heart attack, her heart was only giving her an indicator that she needs to make a change in her lifestyle or it will no longer be able to handle her.
Define the following terms:
-cholesterol
-hypercholesterolemia
-cardiac ischemia
-collateral vessels
-angina pectoris
-plaque
Cholesterol : a white chrystaline substance found in animal tissues & various foods
Hypercholesterolemia: the presence of an excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood
Cardiac Ischemia: decrease in blood flow and oxygen supply
Collateral vessels: new blood vessels created by the body to provide extra blood flow to an area when te blood vessels that are already there are too small, narrow, or blocked.
Angina Pectoris: a heart condition marked by peroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
Plaque: the build up of cholesterol and other fats on inner surface of blood vessels

PART FOUR QUESTIONS/ ANSWERS

Q: Why is the first hour of a heart attack the most critical?
A: Parts of the blood clot may break loose, travel in the blood, and stick in some tiny blood vessel
Q: Why do fibrinogen, C-reactive protein(CRP), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) indicate?
A: Fibrinogen, CRP, and IL-18 all indicate that there are unstable plaque within the bloodstream
Q: What is the cause of Denise's breathlessness, fatigue, and nausea?
A: The pressures and stresses of her life, on top of her unhealthy heart and blood stream due partially to the slight mutation in her LDL
Q: What are platelets and what do they have to do with Denise's heart problem ?
A: Platelets are what stick to the exposed lipid core at the site of plaque rupture, what this has to do with Denise's heart problem is that the with the ruptured plaque, it blocked and damaged Denise's blood stream so this led to a heart attack.
Q: What is an embolism and what is its connection to thrombosis ?
A:"An embolism is a blockage in the bloodstream,caused by a blood clot,air bubble,fatty tissue,or other substance that plugs a blood vessel. Thrombosis is when a blood clot breaks free from its site and travels to a different part within the body".. the way that these two connect is that thrombosis is actually what causes an embolism because through that as the blood clot travels it could block off areas within the blood stream which is what an embolism basically is.
Q: What does LDL have to do with heart attacks ?
A: If LDL levels are high, and LDL is not being efficiently removed from the blood these are negative signs, and indicate reasons as to why you could get heart disease or a heart attack. The actual functions of LDL are to transport cholesterol from the liver to body tissues. If the function is not performed and carried out properly this could be risky to health and well being.
Q: How does Hypertension develop and what does it have to do with a high isk of heart attacks?
A: "Hypertension, or high blood pressure,occurs when the bodies arteries reach such a pressure that the heart,brain, and other critical organs are put at grave risk due to the effort to compensate for the increased pressure and load" . The way this connects to high risk of heart attacks, is that if the arteries are over-powered, and over-pressured , they cannot properly function and deliver a normal blood flow, which leads to poor health, and a potential heart attack.

PART SIX HEALTHY HEART INFO


1. Heart Healthy Diet
a.what foods/nutrients should be limited and specifically what foods/nutrients are beneficial and why ?
a) The type of diet you have, and the types of foods that you consume all are taken in account towards controling blood sugar and protecting your arteries within.
Foods that should be limited in order for maximum heart health-
-unhealthy fats
-sea salt
- salty/fried food
-fast food

Food/nutrients that are beneficial :
-Fish
-Whole grains
-Beans
-All fruits and vegetables
---> All keep blood sugar and arteries at normal levels to guarantee heart health.
2. Lifestyle Changes
a. what activities are hazardous to heart health and what are some solutions?
b.what are the benefits of excercise concerning heart health?
a) smoking for one is extrememly hazardous to heart health, and eating unhealthy is another.
solutions: quit smoking.. avoid second hand smoke. And also, eat healthier health beneficial foods
b) benefits of excercise concerning heart health is definitely more efficient enerfy use, lower resting pulse, lower blood pressure, higher HDL ( the good cholesterol)
3. Aspirin
a. how can aspirin help in preventing heart disease?
Aspirin therapy reduces the clumping action of platelets, possibly preventing heart attack and stroke
4. Draw a diagram of the changes in blood enzyme and troponin levels that occur before,during, and after a heart attack
ECG.jpg
5. Info on how to alter lifestyle :
In order to alter your lifestyle to become more heart healthy- you must first start at your diet. If your LDL levels are high, lower your bad cholesterol intake and increase in fiber.

Second, If you are smoking, immediately quit, and also try to stay as far away as possible from second-hand smoke... this slowly kills the lungs which damages air flow, which effects the circulatory and cardiovascular system as well which eventually takes a toll on your heart. Try a nicotine patch.

If you have high blood pressure, buy an at-home blood pressure meter and start monitoring your blood pressure... aim to stay at about a systolic pressure of 130 or lower and diastolic pressure of 80 or lower.

If you are obese, consult a physician or doctor and speak with them on how to alter your caloric intake and work on adapting to a healthier lifestyle in the diet area to help heart health.

If you are a diabetic, cut back on saturated fats, watch the sea salts, and chose whole grains.

Make sure you get a good 30-60 minutes of cardio excercise in daily, this improves the respiratory and circulatory system which helps the heart.

Stress and diet are the top contributors to heart failure, so evaulate your lifestyle today and begin to make the changes you need to become healthier, if things aren't in the right order and on track in your life.

SOURCES USED IN FINDING INFORMATION :
http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/updates/9-ways-to-protect-your-heart-when-diabetes-threatens-it.shtml

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/daily-aspirin-therapy/HB00073